C.A. Broadwater

A Montana Name Everyone Knew

Text by Suzanne Waring

Broadwater, photographed in 1880 at his home in Fort Assiniboine, held the construction and sulfur contracts for both Fort Assiniboine and Fort Maginnis. Photo provided by F.J. Haynes, photographers, Haynes Foundation Collections, MHS Photograph Archives

Unlike other well-known pioneers of north central Montana, Charles A. Broadwater was never the object of satirical remarks in regional newspapers. He was even called colonel by everyone, not because he had been a colonel in the military but because he had earned this Southern title out of courtesy from others. His parents had been part of the Virginia aristocracy. The soil on their plantation had played out over the years, forcing Broadwater’s father to leave the land of his heritage and to purchase a cotton plantation (some biographers called it a rocky farm) near St. Louis, Missouri, where Broadwater was born.

Charles A. Broadwater in about 1885. Photography by Taylor, Helena, MHS Photograph Archives

When he was sixteen years old, Broadwater left school and worked in a large St. Louis mercantile house. Although he received a business background there, this kind of work was too confining for the adventure- some young man. He headed for the gold fields out West in 1862 and ended up in Bannack and Virginia City.
Choosing to make a living other than in placer mining, he and John S. Pemberton struck out into Blackfeet country that fall. Although dangerous because the Blackfeet hated white men, the two found a large camp, boldly rode in, and negotiated the sale of a large number of horses. Driving the horses south, they were struck by a blizzard. Continuing to push forward in the most adverse conditions, they lost many of the horses but finally ended up near Warm Springs Creek where they spent the remainder of the winter. In 1863, He and Pemberton, who later settled in the Deer Lodge Valley, laid out a town they called Cottonwood, where Deer Lodge stands today. One winter day two fellows, Moore and Reeves, who had been exiled from Virginia City by the vigilantes, showed up and built a wickiup that provided almost no protection from the weather. Moore fell sick and would have died except that Broadwater took him in and nursed him back to health. In the future, that kindness was to be a life saver for Broadwater too. The next spring Broadwater bought up cattle in the Deer Lodge valley and drove them to Bannack to sell. Getting ready to return to the Deer Lodge valley with close to $5000 worth of gold dust in his waist belt, Broadwater was stopped on the street by Moore, who had been allowed back into Bannack. He told Broadwater not to tell anyone when he was leaving town because road agents knew of the fortune hew as carrying. “They are planning on robbing and killing you,” Moore said. Broadwater left town that evening and rode until early hours of the morning when he made camp and allowed his horse to rest. He fastened the rope tied to his horse to his wrist, laid down on the grass, and went to sleep. A pull on his wrist awakened him. Lying very still, he saw an Indian crawling on the ground toward him. Broadwater took aim with his rifle and shot the Indian. The Indian rose up from being wounded and ran into the brush. Later Broadwater rode into the Deer Lodge valley and was beginning to feel safe. Rounding a curve in the trail, he came onto the camp fire of Cooper and Ives, known to be the toughest road agents in Montana. Since he knew them, they acted glad to see him and said they would ride to Deer Lodge with him. To his advantage, they were not saddled up and their horses were grazing afield. He told them that since his horse was tired, he would walk on, but they could catch up with him. As soon as he was out of sight, he spurred his horse into a run to a settler’s cabin twenty miles away with the two of them racing behind him. His horse was so tired that it dropped when he arrived. By that time, the two road agents were only 150 yards behind. Again everyone acted as if they had a friendly race. Ives volunteered make flapjacks for breakfast, bragging that he was an expert. Broadwater went out with the settler to check the stock, and it was then that Broadwater was able to explain his dilemma. The settler sold his fastest horse to Broadwater and told him to leave right then. Ives and Cooper rode into Deer Lodge five hours after Broadwater had safely arrived among friends. Broadwater had been saved by Moore’s warning and Ives’ pride in cooking flapjacks.
Broadwater’s next occupation was working for a freighting company. Through a change of owners, he became superintendent of Nick Wall’s freight company, the Diamond R. In 1866, Broadwater, Matt Carroll, George Steele, and E. G. Maclay bought up the company and made it the largest freighting concern in the West. Many acclaim that it figured in the development of Montana. As superintendent, Broadwater was good at making certain that customers received their shipments on time.
From traveling the state in his occupation, Broadwater became well acquainted with army personnel. He also became acquainted with Amherst H. Wilder, a St. Paul entrepreneur who had contracts with the military. When Fort Assinniboine and Fort Mag- innis were established in the 1870’s, Broadwater, through the association of Wilder, was able to secure the contracts for furnishing all of the construction materials for Fort Assinniboine as well as the contract for running the trading posts at both forts. Broadwater lived and worked at Fort Assinniboine near Havre and his nephew, Thomas A. Marlow, was one of the post traders at Fort Maginnis near Lewistown.

On May 29, 1892, over five thousand people gathered at the Broadwater Springs Hotel to attend Broadwater’s funeral, one of the largest ever held in Montana. Photo provided by MHS Photograph Archives

When railroads came in and forced freight businesses using oxen and mules out of business, Broadwater turned to other sources of income. A spur line needed to be built from the mines in Butte to the mills run by water power in Great Falls. Railroad magnet, James J Hill, recruited Broadwater, whom he met through Wilder, to be president in charge of building and operating the Montana Central Railroad, a job he did with skill.
While he was doing that, he also invested in a silver mine in Neihart; became the first president and a major investor of the Great Falls Water-Power and Townsite Company; was named president of the Great Falls’ First Na- tional Bank, and also was president of theSandCouleeCoalCompany. He started Montana National Bank in Hel- ena with financial backing of Wilder. With this wealth and friends through- out the state, Broadwater was consid- ered one of the state’s Democratic Party big four, along with Marcus Daly, Sam Hauser, and William Clark. In 1873, Broadwater married Julie Chumasero, whose father was a Helena judge and a strong Republican, in a lavish wedding . Those giving gifts were the “Who’s Who” in Montana at the time. They lived at Fort Assinniboine, but later made a permanent home in Helena. They had two children, Charles C. Broadwater and Antoniette Wilder Broadwater. Broadwater will be most remembered for his foray into the tourist industry. He held eighty acres of land to the west of Helena that had both hot and cold water springs. In the late 1880’s he took on building a lavish resort hotel and natatorium that became the largest indoor swimming pool in the world. At one end of the pool were two waterfalls, one from the cold springs and one from the hot springs. Lighted by electricity, at night the natatorium “glistened like a jewel box.” Broadwater thought well-heeled clientele would come from throughout the country on the railroads. They would visit Glacier and Yellowstone Parks and stop at the hotel enroute. But the hotel was too isolated, and the resort gradually fell to disuse.
Although only fifty-two years of age, Broadwater’s body grew tired from all of the energy he had expended over the years. His doctors told him that he had a smoker’s heart. He tried an overseas trip and then a stay on the east coast, only to contract influenza. Upon returning home, he died in Helena on May 24, 1892. To transport the five thousand people who attended his memorial service, additional trains from Butte, Billings, and Great Falls were scheduled. At Broadwater’s untimely death, many of his projects were unfinished and needed someone with energy and busi- ness sense to continue them to fruition. Broadwater’s nephew, Marlow, took on the job and was fairly successful.

Postcard of the Broadwater Hotel and Swimming Pool Building. Courtesy of History Museum

Only with the name of the county of which Townsend is the county seat is C. A. Broadwater remembered today. Gone is the Neihart mine where over two million dollars of silver was extracted. Torn down is the lavish Helena hotel and natatorium. But the people of Great Falls celebrate his interest and investment in a new community—one that he thought had a bright future. It is unlikely Broadwater Bay in Great Falls was named for the early pioneer, C. A. Broadwater.  Even  before a board that named the parks was created, the term, Broadwater Bay, was being used in newspaper articles in the 1880s to identify the quiet, wide expanse of the Missouri River located west of downtown.

By 1894 the mayor and the newly formed Park Board Commission had started looking for tracts of land that would become parks.  A designated piece of property identified as Sun River Tracts and, at that time, located outside the city limits was sold to the city in two parcels by David Thomas and James Chambers in 1890 and 1894 respectively.  Becoming one parcel of land, it had extensive frontage on the Sun River.

This area was to be named Broadwater Park to honor C. A. Broadwater, “Montana’s most illustrious citizen and a warm friend and believer in the destiny of Great Falls.”

When these Sun River Tracts were later officially named, it became Wadsworth Park in honor of O. F. Wadsworth, one of the park commissioners.  Because the Park and Recreation Department records indicate that Broadwater Bay Park was named in honor of C. A. Broadwater, it is entirely possible that the honor was later officially transferred when the Broadwater Bay area became a park .


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Gardening Oasis

Work in Concert With Nature To Manage Garden Pests And Mosquitoes In The Landscape

Text & Photography by Melinda Myers

Butterflies need to drink, but they can’t do so from birdbaths or fountains. To attract butterflies, include one or more puddling sites. Sink a dish tub or bucket in the ground, fill it with sand, and make sure to wet the sand down with your garden hose each day.

A garden filled with flowers, birds, bees and butterflies is a sight to behold. These winged beauties add color, sound and motion to our gardens. Plus, they help maximize a garden’s productivity by pollinating plants and managing plant-damaging pests.

But what about those unwanted visitors to the garden? The aphids, mites and cabbage worms that feed upon our plants or the mosquitoes that feed upon us.  There are ways to have a beautiful garden and at the same time enjoy the outdoors when we work with nature to manage our landscape.

Add a birdbath, a few birdhouses and plants for the birds. They’ll repay you by eating many of the insects that feed upon your plants. Include seed-bearing plants like coneflowers, Rudbeckias and cosmos as well as berry plants like Juneberry, dogwood and firethorn. Add an evergreen and a few trees for shelter and nesting, if space allows.

Include a hummingbird feeder and a few of their favorite flowers like columbine, salvia, penstemon, and phlox.  Then watch as these fast flyers feed upon aphids, mites and mosquitoes in between sips of nectar.

While watching the birds, bees and butterflies, examine your plants for garden pests. Catching insects early may mean the difference between a successful harvest and disappointment. Before reaching for the pesticides and destroying their food source, attract the good guys and manage unwanted pests with a few of these eco-friendly strategies.

Native plants are usually best for native bees, and can be used in both wild areas and gardens. There are also many garden plants—particularly older, heirloom varieties of perennials and herbs that are good sources of nectar or pollen.

Tolerate a bit of damage and wait for the birds, lady beetles, praying mantis and other beneficial insects to move in and eat the bad bugs in the garden. Use barriers like row covers to keep cabbage worms off your cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and Brussels sprouts. Sink shallow containers filled with beer into the soil around host as and some of the other favorite plants of slugs and snails. These pests are attracted to the fermenting yeast, crawl inside and die.

Lady beetles are voracious aphid feeders and an adult beetle will eat 50 or more aphids a day.

Certified Montana Master Gardener, Marcia Bundi, suggests sticking with native plants in your garden and landscaping as they need less maintenance than non-native plants, once they are established. 

“Native plants are better suited to handle extreme temperatures,” says Bundi. 

“They can tolerate disease and pests and can survive on the natural rainfall in the area and are already resistant to local insects which means you won’t need to spray toxic chemicals for pest control,” she says.

If the bad guys persist, step up your eco-friendly control. Knock small populations of aphids and mites off plants with a strong blast of water. Apply insecticidal soap or Summit Year-Round Spray Oil if nature needs a helping hand. These organic insecticides are effective at managing pests, while gentle on the good guys when used properly.  

Keep mosquito populations to a minimum. Drain water from toys, buckets or any object that can hold water and serve as a breeding ground for mosquitoes.  Change the water in birdbaths several times a week. Toss a Mosquito Dunk (SummitResponsibleSolutions.com) in rain barrels and water features. This organic insecticide only kills the larvae of mosquitoes, black flies and fungus gnats. It won’t harm bees, butterflies, birds, pets and people.

Bundi says, “Picture perfect produce is achieved by pesticides but it is important to point out that most insects you see are neither helpful nor harmful, they are just there.   

“My advice is to live and let live.  A little damage isn’t going to hurt your plants.  You just have to decide what you can live with”. 

Insects and diseases are attracted to stressed, damaged or otherwise unhealthy plants, so the key to preventive control is taking good care of your plants. That means paying close attention to them and providing the conditions they need for healthy, vigorous growth.

Evaluate your success and make needed adjustments. Write a note in next year’s calendar to watch for the return of these pests. You’ll be ready to step in and lend nature a hand if needed.

As you begin to work in harmony with nature you will find more birds, bees and butterflies visiting your garden. Together you can grow a beautiful and productive garden for all to enjoy.


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Sighting at Local Coffee Shop

Text by Holly Matkin • Photography by K.C. Kreit

Do you know how many shipping containers come into the United States every day?” asks Great Falls architect Phil Faccenda. “Twenty thousand. Twenty thousand every single day – stacked up like skyscrapers in the shipping yards.”

Many of these containers are recycled and returned to other countries to be rebuilt and reshipped, but others remain unused, piled up in the yards.  Instead of leaving them as waste, innovators like Phil have recognized the plethora of vacant containers as a source of sustainable, green architecture.

Taking on the Challenge

Approximately two years ago, Phil and his company, Faccenda Architects, were developing a plan to create college dormitories using half the budget of traditional construction. “We found places like France and the Netherlands where they are using shipping containers for dorms,” he explains. “We built off that idea, made up plans for very functional living spaces, and created a presentation that fell within the lowered budget requirements.”

In addition to his other ventures, Philip Faccenda is also the founder of the Montana Architecture and Design Academy (MAD Academy), which mentors and trains young aspiring architects.

The more Phil learned about the benefits of building with discarded shipping containers, the more he began brainstorming ways to create a business of his own. And if ever King Kong and shipping containers had anything in common, it would have to be Phil.

Hollywood Meets the Electric City

When Phil and his team began developing plans to create a drive-thru coffee shop, they knew it would have to stand out. “We decided to use three twenty-foot shipping containers side-by-side, with two ten-foot containers stacked on top,” he explains. “The structure will then be clad with metal siding material to reproduce the look of the Empire State Building.”

And who will be hanging out at the top of the building near the antennae? Well, a ten-foot replica of King Kong, of course!

“It turns out that when the original King Kong movie came out, no one trademarked the name,” Phil says. “We were able to apply for a Kong Coffee trademark and are now registered both in Montana and nationwide.”

A Brew Above

“Our coffees begin with the best coffee beans from all over the world, which are then roasted in the finest Italian tradition,” the Kong website notes. “Just like our namesake Kong, we can be bold and strong, but we alsohave a compassionate side for your most sensitive times.”

But Phil believes its more than fantastic beans that sets Kong Coffee apart. “We use only Source Giant Springs water for our brews, which will be held in 400 gallon tanks in the second-level shipping containers. We are the only ones doing it, and the water makes a huge difference in the taste of our coffees.”

Kong Coffee’s fixed location will be somewhere in the area of the college and hospital, but Phil’s business plan doesn’t stop there. “We have a 1959 Chevy step-side van and a customized snow cone van from 1957. The first van will be operational by mid-August, and the second one not long after. We also want to develop an app so customers can place their order, pay for it, and have it ready to pick up by the time they reach the window.”

For more information or to try Kong Coffee before the ape hits town, check out www.kongcoffee.net


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Cosmetic Tattooing

Facial Art: For Health & Heart

Text by Mary Ellen Hendrickson • Photography by Sara Young

We might think of our face as our “self” or at least a large part of our identity.  Whether it’s a “selfie”, a mug shot, a celebrity pose, an image caught on video or a look into a mirror, what we see often determines how we think of our “self.”

Or not.   What if a visual impairment prevented us from seeing our face clearly, if at all?  What if a physical impairment, accident or injury affected our mobility, not to mention the ability to hold things, such as the delicate items involved in applying makeup.

While surgeries and other procedures are options, and at times, necessities, for facial enhancement, the art of facial cosmetic tattooing is gaining in popularity around the world, and 

with it, an increased recognition of the health considerations involved, from the procedures used by the technicians, to the commitment to post-tattooing self-care on the part of the client.

Tippy Burtch, owner of a bar in Cut Bank, Montana, shared her concerns, typical of those prompting men and women choosing to opt for cosmetic tattooing.

“I was 59, my eyebrows had just disappeared and my eyeliner would seem to melt off.  I had no lip color.”

Burtch sought the skills of Shelley Turk, a cosmetic tattoo technician and owner of “Beyond Beauty” in Great Falls. “It used to take like 45 minutes to get makeup on,” she says, noting, “It takes me 10 to 15 minutes now.  I think it has improved my looks, and my friends and husband are quite impressed.”

Burtch echoes comments made by a number of individuals who describe themselves as, “tattoo addicts.”

“It is relaxing and a great experience,” she says.  “Shelley has great music on, she is very personable, friendly and very honest about what would look good.”

Great Falls resident, Dale Perchert, 57, figures he has, “about twenty tattoos,” and says he’s, “been accused of being an addict.” 

“It’s artwork.  It’s self-expression,” says Perchert of his body art.   “A good artist tries to prepare you, tell you to try not to move.  It sort of lulls you into calm.  Spending time with the artist, for hours, is like therapy.”

In addition to ambience, other similarities connect cosmetic tattooing with traditional body art work, including difficulties with corrections and removals.

“All tattooing requires health precautions to promote good healing,” says Jake Carr, tattoo artist at “The Last Best Place Tattoo Shop,” in Great Falls.   “Sterility is the main thing,” he says, noting that all city tattoo artists and shops must adhere to the licensing requirements and inspections posed by the state and local health departments.

Carr counts himself among other local tattoo artists who view cosmetic tattooing with something akin to reverence.

“With the whole cosmetic thing, looking at a person, you wouldn’t know if it was done or not.”  He cites his grandmother, a Florida resident, who has given him a bit of grief about his work as a tattoo artist.  “She still thinks this work is for convicts or murderers,” he quips, adding that she’s had no reluctance in getting eyebrow and eyeliner tattoos done.

The increasing popularity of cosmetic tattooing seems to be taking the “taboo” out of getting a tattoo.

“It’s more popular today,” says Tina Brataan, owner of “Mystic Rhythms’ Tattoo Shop” for the past 18 years.  “Years ago, it was because you were a bit of a rebel.  Now we tattoo lawyers, nurses and even sleeved-out a Greek Orthodox minister years ago.”

“Every artist has their specialty,” says Brataan, “and they have to make you feel that they’re as excited about your choice of design as you are.  Most consider their best “payment” is knowing their work and service makes you happy.”

“You do need to possess artistry for facial tattooing,” says Turk, adding, “If you cannot draw an eyebrow you shouldn’t try to tattoo one.”

“When skin is your canvas,” she says, “this work is a huge responsibility!  It’s very important to make wise choices.  It’s not about bargain shopping.” Turk emphasizes, “Cosmetic facial tattooing, when done correctly, does not hurt. Unlike traditional body tattoos, topical numbing products are used for facial tattoos.”

With facial tattooing there is less room for error.  “It’s your FACE!” exclaims Lisa McNabb, cosmetic tattooist from Bozeman.  “Brows are ‘sisters not twins’,” she says.  “The face is NOT symmetrical.”

McNabb hosts trainers from, “all over the world,” via live classes and webinars.  “Europe is so far ahead of us,” she notes.  “They do such beautiful work!

Turk says she’s attended a number of McNabb’s trainings.  With costs ranging, “from $2,000 to $5,000 per workshop, with trainers from Hong Kong and the UK,” technicians must be willing to invest in their work.

She notes that while current state and local regulations address health related concerns, and artists, shops and technicians do give concise health-related handout instructions to clients, regulators do not address skill levels.

The Society of Permanent Cosmetic Professionals (SPCP. Org., founded in 1990) website provides helpful 

information with services such as scar and beauty mark camouflage, areola repigmentation, eyebrow, eyeliner, lip color, and hair imitation.  “Some procedures,” state the SPCP website, use advanced, “para-medical techniques,” and require experienced technicians with advanced training.”

Lindsey Murolo, Tattoo Removal and Facial Specialist with the Laser Clinic/ Associated Dermatology in Helena, provides laser services for facial or cosmetic tattoo removal.  Murolo says, “these can be difficult to treat because sometimes ink can oxidize and turn green.”

“Patients need to be patient with the process because it takes at least 8 to 15 treatments, if not more,” she says, adding that costs vary because, “every tattoo varies,” and are based on the square inch. 

Murolo is very thorough during the initial “gratis consultation” and ongoing appointments with regard to care, precautions and procedural explanations.

Aimee Lennox, Certified Microblade Artist with Studio Montage in Great Falls shares perspectives from her service providing microblade cosmetic tattooing: “The most important things about microblading are that it is a SEMI-permanent service. It is not the commitment of a true tattoo or cosmetic tattoo that can last a lifetime. Microblading will fade from your skin in 1-3 years. Because it is only in the outermost layers of your skin it does not bleed or blur like a tattoo.”

“It is ideal,” she says, “for anyone who wants to fill in sparse or no brows, add a more defined shape, thicken, lengthen, or darken the look of their brows.”

Lennox explains that, “Microblading is a 2 step process. It cannot be done in only one appointment. 

Your initial appointment will include your full new brows and the second appointment is the touch-up, filling in of any hair strokes that were lost in the healing process.”

“Eyebrows can dramatically change the look of your face which can change a person’s life.

The lack of specific skill requirements by state and local licensing agencies, make it possible for those associated with the beauty world to be tempted to take an introductory course in facial cosmetic tattooing and begin practicing on clients.

Mystic Rhythms’ Tina Brataan observes, “Tattoos often go on a pain-filled canvas:  The skin.”  And while many body art tattoos are done in the memory of loved ones,  “take care with your self first.  Go to licensed facilities and technicians.  Avail yourself of information to educate the customer.”

Most importantly she says, “Stay healthy.  Body, art, health and heart, inside and out.”

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Birds of a Feather Flock Together

Wings Across the Big Sky Festival Brings Birders and Wildlife Enthusiasts to the Electric City

Story By Amy Joyner • Photos By Russell Hill

Every migrating flock of Canada Geese tells people below there is strength in numbers. In Great Falls June 9-11, about 400 birders will combine forces learning about birds and their habitats during the Montana Audubon’s Wings Across the Big Sky Festival, co-hosted by Upper Missouri Breaks Audubon.

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Women Making Strides in a Man’s World

Closing the Agricultural Gender Gap

Written by Suzanne Waring

Although in the minority, women have always been involved in Montana’s agriculture. When the early 20th Century homestead acts opened up land for occupancy, women who were heads of households took up land. Up to 18 percent of all homesteaders in Montana were women. Today nearly one million women are working America’s lands, which is nearly a third of our nation’s farmers.

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